martes, 28 de septiembre de 2010

Minerals of Earth's Crust

Mineral: a solid material of Easth's crust with a definite composition.

Luster: the way light bounces off a mineral's surface.

Streak: the color of the powder left when a mineral is rubbed against a hard, rough surface.

Hardness: how well a mineral resist scratching. 

Cleavage: the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces.

Ore: a mineral containing a useful substance.

Gem: a mineral valued for being rare and beautiful.

Nonrenewable resource: a resource that cannot be replaced within a short period of time or at all.


Earth's Rocks and Soil

Rock: a naturally formed solid in the crust, made up of one or more minerals.

Igneous rock: a rock formed when melted rock material cools and hardens.

Sedimentary rock: a rock made of bits of matter joined together.

Fossil: any remains or imprint of living things of the past.

Metamorphic rock: a rock formed under heat and pressure from another kind of rock.

Humus: decayed plant or animal material in soil.

Pollution: adding any harmful substance to Earth's land, water, or air.

Rock cycle: rocks changing from one form into another in a never-ending series of processes.


Earth's Atmosphere

Renewable resource: a resource that can be replaced in a short period of time.

Ozone layer: a layer of azone gas in the atmosphere that screens out much of the Sun's UV

Fossil fuel: a fuel formed from the decay of ancient forms of life.

Smog: a mixture of smoke and fog.

Acid rain: mousture that falls to Earth after being mixed with wastes from burned fossil fuels.


Earth's Water Supply

Desalination: getting fresh water from seawater.

Water cycle: the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid.

Groundwater: water that seeps into the ground into spaces between bits of rock and soil.

Water table: the top of the water-filled spaces in the ground.

Aquifer: an underground layer of rock or soil filled with water.

Spring: a place where groundwater seeps out of the ground.

Well: a hole dug below the water table that water seeps into.

Reservoir: a storage area for freshwater supplies. 


martes, 21 de septiembre de 2010

Album : Tipe of Polution in My Neighborhood

       In my neighborhood, which is Brisas del Golf 4th Street house 116, we see land polution. Land polution is a pollution in land only. It can cause any types of disease that may cause of death. The responsible agencies of this are DENR(Department of Environment and Natural Resources, government agencies, and Local government units.

My Neighborhood

       This pollution is caused because my neighbors and me throw trash in this place.In this place the animals in the sorrounding can die. Also some insects can reproduce easily causing damage to the neighborhood.

        This problem can be solved by joining the neighborhoodto a meeting to tel them thid problem they would help by dont throwing trash in the street and piking up trash from the street.

martes, 7 de septiembre de 2010



The Solar System consist of an average star called the Sun, eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.  It includes: the satellites of the planets, comets, asteroids, meteoroids and the interplanetary medium.

The Sun is the richest source of electromagnetic energy in the Solar Systems.  The Sun´s nearest known stellar neighbor is a red star called Proxima Centauri, at a distance of 4.3 light years away.

The Sun contains 99.85% of all the matter in the Solar Systems.  The planets, wich condensed out of the same disk of material that formed the Sun, contains only 0.135% of the mass of the Solar Systems.

Satellites of the planets, comets, asteroids, meteoroids and the interplanetary medium constitute the remaining 0.015%.

The following is a list of the mass distribution within our Solar Systems: Sun 99.85%, Planets 0.135%, Comets 0.01%, Satellites 0.00005%, Minor Planets 0.0000002%, Meteoroids 0.0000001%, Interplanetary Medium 0.0000001%.

In this album we areoint to see characteristic from the diferent planets of the Solar System.


The Solar Systems consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by gravity, all of which were formed the collapse of a giant molecular cloud approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

Of the many objects that orbit the Sun, most of the mass is contained within eight relatively solitary planets whose orbits are almost circular and lie within a nerly flat disc called the ecliptic plane.

The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal.  The  four outer planets, the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials.  the two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of ices, such as water, ammonia and methane and are often referred to separately as "ice giants".

The Solar Systems is also home to two regions populated by smaller objects.  the asteroid belt, wiich lies between Mars and Jupiter, is similar to the terrestrial planets as it is composed mainly of rock and metal.  Beyond Neptune´s orbit lie trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices such as water, ammonia and methane.  Within these two regions, five individual objects, Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris, are recognized to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity and are thus termed dwarf planets.

The solar wind, a flow of plasma from the Sun, creates a bubble in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere, wich extends out to the edge of the scattered disc.  Six of the planets and three of the dwarf planets are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth´s Moon.

The Sun is the  Solar System´s star and by far its chief componet.  Its large mass (332,900 Earth masses) produces temperatures and densities in its core great enough to sustain nuclear fusion which releases enormous amount energy, mostly radiated into space as electromagnetic radiation, peaking in the 400 to 700 nm band we call visible light.


Mercury: is the closest panet to the Sun and the smallest planet in the Solar Systems.  Mercury has no natural satellites and its only known geological features besides impact craters are lobed ridges or rupes, probably produced by a period of contraction early in its history.  Mercury´s almost negligible atmosphere consists of atoms blasted off its surface by the solar wind.  Its relatively large iron core and thin mantle have not yet been adequately explained.  Hypotheses include that its outer layers were stripped off by a giant impact and that it was prevented from fully accreting by the young Sun´s energy.

Venus: is close in size to Earth and like Earth, has a thick silicate mantle around an iron core, a substantial atmosphere and evidence of internal geological activity.  However, it is much drier than Earth and its atmosphere is ninety times as dense.  Venus has no natural satellites.  it is the hottest planet, with surface temperatures over 400 grados centígrados, most likely due to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.  No definitive evidence of current geological activity has been detected on Venus, but it has no magnetic field that would prevent depletion of its substantial atmosphere, wich suggests that its atmosphere is regularly replenished by volcanic eruptions.

Earth: is the largest and densest of the inner planets, the only one known to have current geological activity, and is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist.  Its liquid hydrosphere is unique among the terrestrial planets, and it is also the only planet where plate tectonics has been observed.  Earth´s atmosphere is radically different from those of the other planets, having been altered by the presence of life to contain 21% free oxygen.  It has one natural satellite, the Moon, the only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar Systems. 

Mars: is smaller than Earth and Venus.  It possesses an atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide with a surface pressure of 6.1 millibars.  Its surface, peppered with vast volcanoes such as Olympus Mons and rift valleys such as Valles Marineris, shows geological activity that may have persisted until as recently as 2 million years ago.  Its red colour comes from iron oxide in its soil. Mars has two tiny natural satellites thought to be captured asteroids.

Jupiter: at 318 Earth masses, is 2.5 times the mass of all the other planets put together.  It is composed largely of hydrogen and helium.  jupiter´s strong internal heat creates a number of semi-permanent features in its atmosphere, such as cloud bands and the Great Red Spot.  Jupiter has 63 known satellites.  The four largest, Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa, show similarities to the terrestrial planets, such as volcanism and internal heating.  Ganymede, the largest satellite in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury.

Saturn: distinguished by ist extensive ring systems, has several similarities to Jupiter, such as its atmospheric composition and magnetosphere.  Although Saturn has 60% of Jupiter´s volume, it is less than a third as massive, at 95 Earth masses, making it the least dense planet in the Solar System.  The rings of Saturn are made up of small ice and rock particles.
Saturn has 62 confirmes satellites; two of which, Titan and Enceladus, show signs of geological activity, though they are largely made of ice.  Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury and the only satellite in the Solar System with a substantial atmosphere.

Uranus: at 14 Earth masses, is the lightest of the outer planets.  Uniquely among the planets, it orbits the Sun on its side; its axial tilt is over ninety degrees to the ecliptic.  It has a much colder core than the other gas giants, and radiates very little heat into space.
Uranus has 27 known satellites, the largest ones being Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel and Miranda.

Neptune: though slightly smaller than Uranus, is more massive and therefore more dense.  It radiates more internal heat, but not as much as Jupiter or Saturn.
Neptune has 13 known satellites.  The largest, Triton is geologically active, with geysers of liquid nitrogen.  Triton is the only large satellite with a retrograde orbit.  Neptune is accompanied in its orbit by a number of minor planets, termed Neptune Trojans, that are in 1:1 resonance with it.


In this album we saw the characteristics of the different planets 

domingo, 5 de septiembre de 2010


Earth and Its Neighbors

Solar Systems: the Sun and the objects that are traveling around it.

Planet: any of the eight large bodies that travel around the Sun and shine by reflecting its light.

Gravity: a force of attraction, or pull, between any object and any other objects around it.

Inertia: the tendency of a moving object to keep moving in a straight line.

Lithosphere: the hard, outer layer of Earth, about 100 kilometers thick.

Crust: the rocky surface that makes up the top of the lithosphere.

Resource: any material that helps support life on Earth.

Hydrosphere: Earth´s water.

Earth´s Changing Crust

Fault: a crack in the crust, whose sides show evidence of motion.

Geologist: a scientist who studies Earth.

Magma: hot, molten rock deep below Earth´s surface.

Lava: magma that reaches Earth´s surface.

Weathering: the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces.

Erosion: the picking up and carrying away of pieces of rock.

Deposition: the dropping off of bits of eroded rock.

Meteorite: a chunk of rock from space that strikes a surface (such as Earth or the Moon).